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Javi Espada Fotografía Técnicas Fotográficas - Enfoque Selectivo - Javi Espada Fotografía

Técnicas Fotográficas – Enfoque Selectivo

Técnicas Fotográficas – Enfoque Selectivo

 

La visión está en parte controlada por el ojo y en parte por el cerebro. Esto permite ver sólo lo que interesa, prescindiendo del resto de la información. Esta selectividad elimina los elementos distractivos. Pero la cámara no puede hacer esto, y capta todo: lo que importa y lo que no.

Ante una fotografía desenfocada es inútil mover el ojo. Este enfoque selectivo puede aprovecharse para centrar la atención en algún punto de la escena. Por este motivo es importante saber las reglas que gobiernan la consecución de la nitidez máxima y teniendo el control de la profundidad de campo.

El enfoque selectivo permite hacer nítido una parte de la imagen, quedando en un segundo plano el resto. Al realizar este tipo de efecto fotográfico seleccionamos una parte muy concreta de la imagen y conseguimos captar toda la atención sobre un punto de interés.

Al realizar este tipo de efecto conseguimos realzar una parte de la escena desenfocando el resto, el ojo buscará aquella parte de la imagen que esté nítida como punto fuerte de la imagen.

 

En la fotografía de arriba el fondo se ve muy desenfocado y ocupa mucha parte de la escena, al enfrentar una parte de la escena nítida contra otra muy desenfocada conseguimos darle mucha fuerza a la imagen pero al acentuar tanto el efecto puede llegar a ser molesto visualmente. Podemos desenfocar menos el fondo produciendo el mismo efecto pero sin ser tan evidente, como podemos ver en la fotografía de abajo.

Para realizar este efecto fotográfico debemos de usar diafragmas abiertos, f 4, f 2,8, f 2 …, y además debemos de aproximarnos al motivo a fotografiar.

 

También tendremos que utilizar objetivos con una distancia focal grande, mínimo de 50 mm en adelante. A partir de 70mm los objetivos son propensos a realizar buenos enfoques selectivos. Cuanto mayor sea la distancia focal de nuestro objetivo menos tendremos que abrir el diafragma.

 

Podemos desenfocar menos el fondo produciendo un efecto similar pero sin ser tan evidente, como podemos apreciar en la siguiente fotografía.

 

Podemos realizar enfoques selectivos controlando la distancia focal, es decir aquello que aparece nítido y bien enfocado en la imagen. Ahora desenfocamos el primer plano y realizamos un enfoque selectivo por detrás del primer plano.

 

Este efecto se utiliza mucho en retratos de moda para separar a la modelo del fondo y captar toda la atencion en el primer plano.

 

Enfoque Selectivo © Javi Espada Modelo: Inés Canton

Modelo: Inés Canton

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